Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. [Free Notes, Free Videos
Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. [Free Notes, Free Videos]
Cropping pattern as indicators of environments.
Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans.
Climate change – International conventions and global initiatives.
Greenhouse effect and global warming.
Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country.
Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns.
Concepts of various cropping and farming systems.
Organic and Precision farming.
Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.
Soil- physical, chemical and biological properties.
Processes and factors of soil formation.
Soils of India.
Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity.
Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants.
Principles of soil fertility,
Soil testing and fertilizer recommendations,
Integrated nutrient management.
Losses of nitrogen in soil,
Nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils.
Efficient phosphorus and potassium use.
Problem soils and their reclamation.
Soil factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.
Integrated watershed management.
Soil erosion and its management. [Free Notes]
Dry land agriculture and its problems.
Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rain fed areas.
Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production,
Criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water.
Drip and sprinkler irrigation.
Drainage of waterlogged soils,
Quality of irrigation water,
Effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.
Irrigation projects in India.